What Is Investment Economics?
- The impact of tax and technological changes on the decision to invest
- The Theory of Capital and Investment in the Macro Economy
- Speculation and Investment
- The Investment Demand Curve in the Solar Energy Sector
- Private Investment
- Induced Investment
- Microeconomics: A Social Science
- Planning a Wealthy Asset
- The Interest Rate and Investment Income of a Financial Firm
- The pitfalls of finance professionals
- The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Economy
- The Measure of Labor Productivity
- Investing in Financial Assets
- Capital Production in Marxian Theory
The impact of tax and technological changes on the decision to invest
The temporal profile of costs and revenues will be important in the decision to invest or not. The payback-period, in which the investment is covered by accrued profits, provides important reference for rules-of-thumbs. The value over time of benefits will be discounted through a subjective discount rate in many decision processes and routines.
The decision will be based on more strategic and vital arguments. A new vision of the competitive environment and global trends can bring to invest in surprising directions. There are investments that are not based on interest rates.
Firms usually have a very limited number of investment projects, when profitability is high. A small change interest rate would not have an impact on investment decisions. The effect of large interest rate changes may be asymmetric, with a strong increase of interest rate causing a fall investment dynamics, whereas a similar decrease may not induce investment if there is no real perspective benefits.
New technology innovation and the need of imitating competitors' adoption of innovation can force firms to invest in a process of diffusion that can be boosted by a tax environment that is pro-diffusion of innovation tax. If labour substitution investment is the case, employment can fall. Other types of investment and economic situations give rise to an increasing employment.
The investment directions affect the quality and composition of employment. Green jobs depend on wide investment in green sectors and technologies. Changes in government can have an effect on raising or abating expectations of business in terms of the economic environment and actions.
The Theory of Capital and Investment in the Macro Economy
Investment is an important part of the Keynesian model and also in dynamic models of Harrod and Domar who analyse the source of growth. Investment fluctuations can cause business cycles or income fluctuations. Investment's instability is an important aspect.
It is the most volatile component of demand. Net investment can be negative or positive. Private enterprise economies have gross private domestic investment that is, residential housing construction, business acquisition of new industrial plants, machinery and equipment, and additional inventory.
Business fixed investment includes equipment and structures that businesses buy. Residential investment includes the new housing that people buy to live in. Investment is smaller than consumption.
It is the most volatile component of the demand. Investment in plant, equipment and machinery is important for the macro economy since it determines how much the economy can produce for consumption now and in the future. The interest rate is not the price of capital goods.
The cost of using financial capital is what it is. The cost of capital and cost of investment are not the same thing. The cost of capital is interest cost which is a flow variable but the cost of investment is the acquisition cost which is likely to generate cash flows in the future
Speculation and Investment
An investment is an asset or item that is meant to be appreciated. Over time, appreciation is the increase in the value of an asset. When an individual purchases a good as an investment, they want to use it to create wealth, not consume it.
Speculation and investing are different activities. Speculation involves trying to make quick money by exploiting inefficiencies in the market, while investing involves buying assets with the intent of holding them for a long time. While investors look to build assets over time, ownership is not a goal of speculators.
Not really. The payoff from an investment can take several years, so it's a long-term commitment. Proper analysis usually done before an investment is made to understand the risks and benefits.
The Investment Demand Curve in the Solar Energy Sector
If you have $10,000 on hand, you should have it. You are considering whether to use the money for a solar energy system or a bond. The interest rate you could earn on the bond will affect your decision to purchase the system.
The interest rate is the cost of putting funds into the solar energy system. The interest you would pay on the $10,000 is the cost of putting it into the system. Millions of investment choices are dependent on the interest rate.
Some interest rates are better than others, but not all. The higher the interest rate, the less potential investments will be justified. The interest rate and investment are related.
The investment demand curve shows the amount of investment spending per year at each interest rate, assuming all other factors are the same. The curve shows that the level of investment increases as the interest rate falls. Investment would increase from $950 billion to $1,000 billion per year if the interest rate was reduced from 8% to 6%.
The investment demand curve is not negative but it is the fact that it shifts often that is most important. Investment responds to changes interest rates, but other factors seem to be more important in driving investment choices. Firms need capital to make things.
Private investment is the purchase of a capital asset that is expected to produce income, appreciate in value, or both. A capital asset is a property that is hard to sell and is purchased to help an investor make money. Capital assets include land, buildings, machinery, and equipment.
Investment and savings are not the same thing. If you don't purchase a capital asset that is used to generate income, like a machine, or if you don't expect it to appreciate in value, like a house, then you are not investing. You can save more than you invest if you put the rest of the profit in a savings account.
Induced investment is a way to make money. The changes of national income are related to this. The relationship between national income and investment is positive, and decreases in national income can lead to a decrease investment.
Income elastic is the result of Induced investment. It is positively sloped. Keynes introduced the idea of the importance of the determinant of investment in 1936.
Microeconomics: A Social Science
Indiana University says economics is a social science. It has a method for analyzing and predicting individual behavior and the effects of institutions such as firms and governments. Economics is the study of choices.
The choice is much more expansive than some think. If the study of economics is about how people choose to use their resources, analysts must consider all of their possible resources, of which money is but one. Microeconomics is the study of economics at the level of individual consumers, groups of consumers, or firms, and it is the analysis of the decisions made by individuals and groups, the factors that affect those decisions, and how those decisions affect others.
Microeconomics considers the behavior of individual markets, such as the markets foranges, cable television, or skilled workers, as opposed to the overall markets for produce, electronics, or the entire workforce. Microeconomics is essential for local governance, business, personal finance, stock investment research, and individual market predictions. Economists work in business, government and academia.
An economist's focus may be on a particular topic, like inflation or interest rates, or her approach may be broader. Calculating economic relationships is what economists might be used to advise businesses, nonprofits, labor unions, or government agencies. Many economists are involved in the practical application of economic policy, which could include a focus on several areas from finance to labor energy to health care.
Planning a Wealthy Asset
Financial planning is a broad concept, whereas investing money is just a piece of a pie chart diagram. When you decide to invest wealth, you have to finish your half of the road map with your regular savings. Next is to draw a road map of your target and set your financial milestones. Proper financial planning with clear milestones can only be done with proper knowledge of investment options which suits you best, risks, reward returns, and other factors.
The Interest Rate and Investment Income of a Financial Firm
The investment interest rate is the most important factor in determining the level of planned spending. Investment income is achieved when the yield on the investment interest rate is enough to cover the taxes on the investment. When interest rates go up, the price of bonds go down making them cheaper to purchase, because bond prices are opposite to interest rates.
The pitfalls of finance professionals
Finance professionals are not the same as economists. Many economics graduates go for finance because they want to explore more practical aspects of the business than theoretical models.
The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Economy
The spillover effect of foreign direct investment can be big over a long period of time. Training workers or building infrastructure can only benefit the company at first, but as workers change jobs and find new uses for the infrastructure, the rest of the economy can benefit as well. There are bound to be a few sticky issues when foreigners buy companies that control important parts of the economy. Allowing foreign companies to control key industries like transportation can cause serious problems down the road.
The Measure of Labor Productivity
Labor productivity may be further broken down by sector to see trends in labor growth, wage levels, and technological improvement. Productivity growth is linked to corporate profits and shareholder returns. Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of a company's production process, it can be measured by the number of units produced relative to employee labor hours or by the company's net sales.
Companies have been spending money on short-term investments and share purchases. Capital investment is one solution besides better education, training, and research. Reforming corporate taxation is the best way to increase investment in manufacturing, according to economists.
The calculation for productivity is easy, divide the outputs by the inputs used to produce them. The output can be measured in units produced or sales, while labor hours are the most regularly used input. Productivity is the amount of work done over a specific period of time.
Investing in Financial Assets
Have you ever heard someone talk about mutual funds and stocks? Does the mention of investments seem overwhelming? Understanding some basic information about financial investments can be a great first step in learning how to invest, know your path to retirement, and maximize the rate of return on your money.
A financial investment is an asset that you put money into with the hope that it will grow or appreciate into a larger sum of money. You can earn money on it while you own it or sell it at a higher price later. Saving for a car or saving for retirement may be the things you want to grow over the next year or 30 years.
An investment grows in value if it is appreciated. A year after you buy a share of stock for $10, it is worth 15 and the stock has appreciated $5. You can invest in gold.
It is a small part of a portfolio that appreciates over time. It is thought to be a form of financial protection. You can also invest in other metals.
Capital Production in Marxian Theory
Capital is the assets used for the production of goods and services. The machinery used in factories is a typical example. Capital can be increased by human labor, and does not include durable goods like homes and personal automobiles that are not used in the production of saleable goods and services.
Karl Marx adds a distinction that is often confused with David Ricardo's. Variable capital is seen as the only source of surplus-value in Marxian theory. It is called variable because it can produce different amounts of value depending on the amount it consumes.
Marx takes the investment in non-human factors of production, such as plant and machinery, which he uses to produce his own replacement value, to be constant capital. Capital is the production of increased capital. Investment requires that some goods be produced that are not immediately consumed, but instead used to produce other goods as capital goods.
Saving and investment are related, though not the same. Keynes said that saving and investment involve not spending all of one's income on current goods or services. Austrian School economist Eugen Boehm von Bawerk said that capital intensity was measured by the roundaboutness of production processes.